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那些“一夜变脸”的外国译名

发布时间: 2017-04-09 14:05 来源:老时时彩_老时时彩官网-「官网_Welcome」  青年参考

  浩如烟海的外国专有名称被转化为中文时,会遵循若干成文或不成文的基本原则。某些沿用多年的习惯说法突然在一夜间被推翻,一大主因在于,它们本来就是“将错就错”的产物。

老时时彩  3yue16ri,baieluosizhuhuadashiguanfawen,yaoqiugenggaigaiguodezhongwenmingcheng,cheng“hanyuzhong‘baieluosi’zheigecuowudeguoming,shihenduozhongguorenhuaiyiduifangshuodedaodishinageguojia……yaobalaoshishicaiguomingchengfanchengzhongwendehua,neijiuyinggaiyong’bailuosi’zheigeci,jibaxianzaidemingchengqudiao’e’zi”。

  chule“bailuosi”,haiyounaxieershunengxiangdeyimingzaiyiyejianbianlian?tamenbeihouyouheguilvkexun?

  “mingcongzhuren”tixianchuzunzhong

  “bailuosi”cicifachuqingqiuhou,zhongguoxuezhezhankailerelietaolun,duoshurenqingxiangyurentongwaifangshuofa,renwei“bailuosi”congyuyinshanghaiyuanle“belarus”benlaideduyin,“baieluosi”deyifayinggaisuanshizaoniandefanyishiwu。anzhao“mingcongzhuren”deyuanze,weizheigedongouguodugenggaizhongwenyimingshituodangde。

  guanyufanyibiaozhun,dajiadouduiyanfutichude“xin、da、ya”ershunengxiang。jutidaoguoming、diming、renming、jigoumingdengzhuanmingfanyi,jibenyuanzeshi“mingcongzhuren、yuedingsucheng、mingcongquanwei”。

  “mingcongzhuren”zhideshiwaiguorenwuhuojigouziqudezhongwenmingyingdangyuyizunzhong,rumeiguohanxuejiajohn king fairbankjiranyijingquming“feizhengqing”,jiubuyingzaichengtawei“yuehan·jin·feierbanke”;zheixiangyuanzeyezhiyinggenjurenwusuoshuzuyidemuyufayinfanyi,rutouzijiedaegeorge sorosshixiongyaliyimin,yangelaishuo,tadexingshiyinggaianxiongyaliyuyiwei“shaoluoshen”erfei“suoluosi”。

老时时彩  “yuedingsucheng”,zhuyaozhiwaiguozhuanmingdeyifayingdangyanyongdingyi,yejiushi“xianruweizhu”。helanhagueyiwei“haiya”、meiguohawaiiyiwei“xiaweiyi”,doushiyanyongduoniandexiguanyifa。

老时时彩  zhiyu“mingcongquanwei”,gumingsiyijiushiyaoxuanzequanweijigoudeyifa。

老时时彩  suiranzhuanmingfanyiyaozunxunyishangsandayuanze,dansanzheshuqingshuzhongbingwuyidingzhigui,tongchangyaoshijutiqingkuangerding。hanguoshoudouseouldegengmingjiushidianxinganli。2005nian,shirenhanchengshishizhanglimingboxuanbuhanchengdezhongwenmingchenggaiwei“shouer”,suihou,hanguofangmiantongguoguanfangqudaoyaoqiuzhongguogenjin。“hancheng”shilishigucheng,benyingzunxun“yuedingsucheng”yuanze,danzhongguojingguoshenzhongkaolv,haishitongyilehanfangyaoqiu,“mingcongzhuren”yuanzeshengchu。buguo,duiyuhanfangjianghanguoguojiayuanshou(president)dezhongwenchengweigaiwei“datongling”deyaoqiu,zhongfangbingweijieshou,rengranchengwei“zongtong”。

  juedaduoshushihou,zhongguoyuanyizunzhongwaiguodexuanze,xifeiguojiaketediwadegengmingjiushizheiyang。ketediwa(c te d’ivoire)zaifayuzhongdeyisishi“xiangyadehaian”,bushaodifangdoucengyongyiyichenghugaiguo: zhongwenshi“xiangyahaian”,yingwenshi“ivory coast”。1985nian10yue14ri,shirenketediwazongtongfeilikesi·wufuai-bowaniyaoqiugeguotongyianfayufayinchenghubenguo,yejiushicongyiyiyilvgaiweiyinyi。zidangnian12yue31riqi,lianheguokaishicaiyong“ketediwa”deyiming,geguosuijigenjin,zheijiushi“mingcongzhuren”。

  erzhanhou,xindulideguojiafenfengaidiaozhiminshidaidejiucheng,fanyingzaizhongwenyimingshang,baokuo“xilan”gaiming“sililanka”,“huangjinhaian”gaiming“jiana”,“luodexiya”gaiming“jinbabuwei”,“(yuanbishu)gangguo”gaiming“zhayier”,zhihouyougaiwei“gangguo(jin)”。“miandian”deyingwenmingyouburmagaiweimyanmar,buguozhongwenchengweiweigai。ciwai,1991nianyihou,“lieninggele”bianhui“shengbidebao”yeweiguorensuoshuzhi。

  yuedingsuchenghaishijiangcuojiucuo?

老时时彩  dabufenguojiahechengshizhongwenyimingdegaibianshiduifangzhudongyaoqiude。ruguowaifangwushenyijian,neimezhongwenyimingdeshouyaoyuanzedangshu“yuedingsucheng”——bijing,gaibianduonianlaixiguandechenghushijianmafanshi。zheigedaoliduigeguodouyiyang。1978nian,zhongguocengyaoqiugeguozhengfujixueshu、chubanjigoushiyonghanyupinyinchenghuzhongguodiming,rugaipekingweibeijing、gaicantonweiguangzhou,danzhidaojintian,hunyongdeqingkuangyiranchangjian。

老时时彩  aomendeyingyimingmacauyeshiyuedingsuchengdechanwu。aomenerzizaiyueyulidefayinshi“ou mun”,yumacauxiangqushenyuan。zhuigensuyuan,16shiji,chudaoaomendeputaoyarenwenyuminzheishishenmedifang,yuminsuikoudayue“mage(maa gol)”,putaoyarensuiyiweizheijiushidangdibenming,yu“jineiya”(dangdituzhuyu“laoshishicaishinvren”)he“jianada”(tuzhubuluoming)qingkuangxiangsi,wenyiduodeshizuo《qizizhige》cengtidaozheiduandiangu。aomenyu1999nianhuiguizhongguo,danmacauyishenrurenxin,suoyijiu“jiangcuojiucuo”le。

老时时彩  tongyang“jiangcuojiucuo”dehaiyouhenduowaiguorenming。yixielishirenwubaoliulechuantongyifa,rucedongyapianzhanzhengdeyingguowaijiaodachen、shouxiangthe viscount palmerstonrengbeizuixinxueshuzhuzuochengwei“bamaizun”,erfei“pamaisidunzijue”;“aisenhaoweier”、“baoweier”、“anni”he“beikehanmu”anzhaozhongwenyueduxiguanzengjialeziyin,erfeigenjushijifayinyiwei“aisenhaoer”、“baoer”、“an”he“beikemu”。saierweiyawangqiuhaoshounovak djokoviczuiweizhongguorenshuzhidemingzishi“deyuekeweiqi”,erfei“qiaokeweiqi”。

  yixiewaiguorenhen“xiangshou”zheizhong“jiangcuojiucuo”。zhongguoshishijieshangweishubuduodeyonggermanyerfeideutschlandzhidaideguodeguojia,quemeiyouyangeduiyingdiyiwei“riermanniya”,ershijixurangduifangxiangyou“deyizhi”zheigechuantongmingzi。yixiewaiguogongsiyejixushiyongbuzhunquedanhaotingdejiuyiming,rumeiguokuaicangongsimcdonald’sganggangjinruzhongguoshicengyongming“maiketangna”,houlaigaichengleyueyuyinyi“maidanglao”;meiguoshiyougongsimobilcengyi“mobier”,houlaigaichengleqingmoheminguoshiqide“meifu”。zhiyu“kedoukenla”、“benci”he“bayier”,xianranburu“kekoukele”、“benchi”he“baoma”taoxi;xiangbizhixia,ribenhaoche“lingzhi”gaicheng“leikesasi”suirangengtiejin“lexus”debenyin,dan“weidao”furuyuanshen。

老时时彩  budangyimingjiuzainilaoshishicaishenbian

老时时彩  mingzishilishihewenhuadechanwu,ruguobuqingchutamenbeihoudeaomi、zhiqiranerbuzhiqisuoyiran,zaifanyishijiunanmianyixiaodafang,shenzhizaochengwujie。yourenrenwei,“bailuosi”ciciyaoqiugaiming,jiushiyinweiyuanlaideguomingzongrangrenyiweihaiyou“heieluosi”,shenzhiwuyiweigaiguoshi“eluosidemouyipianquyu”。

老时时彩  fanyidailaidewuhuijingchangyingxiangshenyuan。20shiji70niandai,xinxijishulangchaozaixifangfangxingweiai,dangshideyixiezhongguoyizhewujiang“intel technology”yiwei“qingbaojishu”,tuzengkunrao。yingguodeyidun(eton college)hehaluo(harrow school)zongshibeijiashang“gongxue”dehouzhui,daozhibushaorenbazheileiguizusilixuexiaohemianxiangdazhongde“gonglixuexiao(public school)”hunxiao。

老时时彩  chuangkanyu1930nian、meiniandouyaopingxuanshijieqiye500qiangdefortunezazhizaizhongguozhangqibeiyiwei《xingfu》,guangkanmingchenghaiyiweishishenghuoleikanwu。zhidaota1996niankaishifaxingzhongwenban、guanfangdingming《caifu》,cuowuyimingcaizourulishi。meiguodemayo clinicgengdaomei——zheijiayongyou3jiafenyuan、5wanduoyuangongdeshijiezhumingyiliaojituanbeiyiwei“meiaozhensuo”,henrongyirangbushuxiderenhushitadejingzhanyishu。

  weilie“shijiesandatiyusaishi”zhiyide“yijifangchengshi(formula 1)saiche”,qishiheshuxuewuguan。formuladequeyou“shuxuegongshi”dehanyi,dananzhao《meiguochuantongcidian》dejieshi,zheigeciyongzaisaichangshangshi,zhideshi“juedingsaichejibiedeyizhengtaoguize”。suoyi,f1saicheqishijiushi“yijisaiche”。guojishangchulef1,haiyoujibiejiaodidef2saiche。

老时时彩  tiyujiedelingyige“tangqiangzhe”shiputaoyazuqiujulebu“lisibenjingji”。2017nian9yue,zheijiapuchaochuantonghaomenzaizhongguoshejiaomeitishangfabutonggao,xuanbuzijidezhongwenmingzishi“putaoyatiyu”,puyumingziliconglaijiumeiyou“lisiben”zheigeci。zheiguijiuyudangniandeyizhebutongxiaopuyu,zhinengcongyingwenzhuanyi,yingguorenweileyubenguode“tiyudui”qufenerjiashangle“lisiben”,zhongfangyizhezhaodanquanshou。

  momingqimiaodeyifazaiwenxuelingyuyeshiyouerwen。xiaoshuo《to kill a mockingbird》zaizhongguoguangweirenzhi,mockingbirdzhuanzhi“chaodong、fansheniao”,1983niandezhongwenyibenyezhengquediyiwei《qiangdafansheniao》。kebuzhiweihe,cihoudeyibenhedianyingmingchengbianchengle《shasiyizhizhigengniao》,erzhigengniaohefansheniaowulunshiwaiguanhaishizhongshudouwanquanbutong。lianzhuanyexuezhedoubuzhidaozheige“mingzhigufan”dewuyidaodishizenmechuxiande。

老时时彩  haiyouxiefanyiwentiyingguijiuyuyizhedezhishishuiping。yixiewenzhangjiangerzhanshimeiguodewar department(lujunbu)yicheng“zhanzhengbu”,baolulezuozheduimeiguolishiquefalejie。lundundefleet street(jianduijie)qishidemingyufujindefleet river(fulitehe),“jianduijie”tongyangyouwangwenshengyizhixian。haiyou《taiwushibao》(the times),zheijiayingyuguojia“shibao”debizubeianshangleyitiaoheliudemingzi,jihouren“walekeng”。

  2001nianmeiguo“9·11”shijianfashenghou,yingyumeitiyong“ground zero”chenghushimaozhongxinyizhi,youdeyizhejiangqiyiwei“lingdidai”huo“guilingdi”。qishizheishigejunshishuyu,benyishi“baozhazhongxin”。

老时时彩  junshifangmianzuiyouzhengyideyimingdangshumeiguohaijunde“qiye(enterprise)”hao。enterprisedezuichangyonghanyidangranshi“qiye”,danyong“qiye”laiduiyingyigemeiguohaijunchuanchengliangbaiyunian、cengduocizhidaiweilijudadehangkongmujiandejianming,sihubutaiqiadang。zuihou,meiguorenzijijiejuelezheigezhongwenfanyidenanti。zai2012nian12yuelaoyidai“qiye”haodetuiyiyishishang,meiguohaijunxuanbudisansou“fute”jihangmudemingzirengjiangshienterprise,zaimeiguoguanfangdezhongwenbaodaozhong,gaijianbeiyiwei“jinqu”hao。

老时时彩  dangran,yeyouxiangdangyibufenfanyiwentiguaibudezhongguoyizhe。meiguodingjiangaoxiaozhiyidethe johns hopkins universityxiguanshangbeiyizuo“yuehan·huopujinsidaxue”,shishishang,gaixiaoyinggaijiaozuo“yuehansi·huopujinsidaxue”,houzheshigaixiaojuanzirendemingzi。keshi,zuoweirenming,johnsfeichanghanjian,jishiyiyingyuweimuyuzheyejingchangbatayuchangjiandejiaomingyuehan(john)nonghun。1888nian,meiguowenhaomake·tuwenjiucengyiyeyudekouwenjianyihuopujinsidaxuegaiming: “renmenkebuhuiduiyisuolianmingzidoumeixieduidexueyuanyouxinxin!

  本文刊载于《青年参考》报4月5日A10版

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